Applying Data-Based Leadership Evaluation Models in ASEAN

Posted by Michael Sanger on Fri, Jul 15, 2016

The following write-up will appear as part of a larger whitepaper to be published by Singapore Management University. For more information, please contact me at

Without effective leaders in place, teams will fail to outperform the competition. When organizational strategies and tactics enter the international stage, cross cultural implications take the spotlight. Examples include international mergers and acquisitions (M&A); State Owned Enterprises (SOE) and Government Linked Corporations (GLC) looking to compete globally; assessment for expatriate and relocation assignments; cross-border contract negotiations; and development of regional managers with cross-country purview. Each of these opportunities brings forth debate around the benefits and drawbacks of a singular versus adaptable leadership assessment model.

Specifically, the cultural variance within Asia introduces especially complex challenges when deriving a data-based model for effective management. Implicit leadership theory posits that people define leadership through their understanding of those already in power. Research shows that a location’s unique cultural, macroeconomic, and political circumstances can influence which characteristics tend to be rewarded by way of talent promotion. That is not to say there are not certain non-negotiable needs for leaders to address.

To be clear, there are universal characteristics indicative of effective leadership. No matter where in the world leaders are assessed, subordinates demand integrity, competence, a record of good judgment, and the ability to craft and articulate a vision. However, when leadership emergence is studied with sound personality metrics, aspects such as appropriate ways of demonstrating one’s motivational drive, preferred communication style, and tolerated derailing behaviors tend to vary by location.

It comes as no surprise we find commonalities as well as key differences in leadership expectations across the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Emotional stability, inclination to proactively communicate, and openness to new experiences tend to see the same levels of saliency in managerial ranks across the world.

However, when we examine levels of agency and conscientiousness (each relating to drive and achievement) as well as agreeableness (indicative of communication style), we find tremendous differences, not only around the globe but also across Asia and within ASEAN. Northeast Asian countries (mainland China, Japan, and South Korea) tend to reward leaders who seek consensus on decisions before moving forward, and drive others through a keen process orientation. Although business negotiation cycles can take longer as a result, once all stakeholders are on board a deal needs to close fast or there is risk of jeopardizing the agreement. Leaders from this part of Asia tend to be prudent and are more focused on potential threats than rewards. They also tend to be comfortable engaging in debate as well as confronting poor performance timely.

In ASEAN markets like Singapore and Malaysia (as well as in places such as India and Hong Kong), leaders who self-initiate and demonstrate flexibility on how to achieve a goal tend to ascend. Characterized by more individualistic leanings, the managerial ranks in these locations are constituted by opportunistic leaders who tend to be ambitious risk takers. Checking in frequently with team members is necessary to compensate for their tendency to change course according to an evolving business landscape; they may overlook the need to ensure others are continuously aligned, and are keeping up with shifting plans. Leaders from these parts of Asia are also inclined to maintain harmony when disagreements arise. Therefore, confrontational debate can feel awkward, and they may try to avoid circumstances that feature conflict, even if it’s constructive. Still, other countries in ASEAN (e.g. Thailand and Indonesia) tend to value organizational leaders who resemble northeast Asia when demonstrating motivational drive; but whose agreeable communication style is more similar to that of their southeast Asian neighbors. With such diverse and nuanced behavioral expectations for local managers, multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Australia, US, or the EU have difficulty deploying a singular framework for leadership evaluation.

Organizations agree that communication effectiveness and motivational drive is a must-have for managers in every business unit location. However, the characteristics that support these perceptions vary. Based on our research into these factors and, given the overwhelming reference to ASEAN's diversity from the CEOs in this study, we recommend local leadership benchmarks and other emergence data (e.g. personality data) be considered before finalizing an international talent management strategy. These data can alert those assembling or mapping corresponding evaluation models to where adverse impact could be expected. Qualitative, theoretical, and empirical data will help to understand where and how such models should be altered, so as to ensure fair and accurate assessment across ASEAN. In order to participate in ASEAN's economic growth story, an organization needs to have a stakeholder model of leadership that can work in concert with this great diversity.

Tomas Visits Colombia Distributor Thuoper

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Thu, Jul 07, 2016

Hogan’s CEO, Dr. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, visited Colombia in June to present a new perspective about leadership in the workplace. He referred to different leadership styles and how they influence business performance of organizations successfully worldwide. 4-1.jpg

Hogan distributor Thuoper Colombia hosted six conferences in Bogota and Medellin where Dr. Chamorro shared interesting insight with more than three hundred leaders from different companies. Dr. Chamorro stated how personality impacts leadership styles. Participants presented experiences and related case studies as well. In addition, they talked about how personal values impact the leadership style. Finally, Dr. Chamorro talked about toxic elements that prevent, or make it harder, to implement an effective leadership. 6_.jpg


Topics: distributors

Leadership Lessons from Muhammad Ali

Posted by Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic on Tue, Jun 07, 2016

Professional sports often illustrate important psychological and life principles, even for the world of business. Traditionally, discussions on leadership tend to focus on team sports, but occasionally individual athletes emerge who can teach us a great deal about leadership, too. Here are some lessons from the extraordinary Muhammad Ali:

1) Morality is antisocial: True leadership requires vision, and vision requires the inability to accept the status-quo. In that sense, all leaders are somewhat antisocial: they reject established rules and norms and provide a different - better - perspective on reality, which is the basis for their moral code. Importantly, true leaders have the integrity to live by their beliefs even if it means upsetting authority and sacrificing personal gains; and they deal with the consequences. They show high levels of consistency between what they say and what they do, and challenge the elite with defiance. And in the end, their thoughts and ideals prevail over the old order of things. To be sure, leaders will only inspire if their vision is congruent with the beliefs and values of their followers, and in doing so they will also repel those who think and feel differently. But one thing is certain: if you don’t stand for anything, have no visible convictions, or just follow what everybody else does, you are not a leader. This is why leaders are rare not only in the world of professional sports, but also in politics and business.

2) Personality is a talent accelerator:
No matter how much talent you have, the right mindset, a serious work ethic, and a desire to strive for perfection and be the best, will enhance your talent. It is often the case that individuals with an innate predisposition to develop exceptional skills lack the grit and determination to unleash their full potential. Despite Ali’s incredible talent, he trained and worked as if he had none. From early on in his career he was the first person to arrive at the gym and the last one to leave - and he hated training. When we consider that the most effective leadership development interventions involve leaders who are already more coachable to begin with - they sign up and engage in this programs because of their higher levels of curiosity, humility, and willingness to improve - it is clear that coaching tends to help mostly those who need it the least. Conversely, those who need it the most - mediocre or inept leaders - tend to resist coaching and development because they are arrogant, complacent, or unaware of their incompetence.

3) It ain’t bragging if you can back it up:
It would be hard to call Ali modest, and fewer personality attributes are more salient in him than his self-confidence. However, it is equally naïve to think that Ali was as arrogant as his self-presentation style suggests. First, his public self-confidence was clearly a calculated attempt to entertain the media and intimidate opponents. Second, it also helped him hide any nerves or fear, both from others and himself. Third, and most importantly, unlike most self-confident and arrogant people, Ali had the goods to back it up. This point was highlighted beautifully by Barack Obama: “Muhammad Ali was The Greatest. Period. If you just asked him, he’d tell you. He’d tell you he was the double greatest; that he’d ‘handcuffed lightning, thrown thunder into jail’. But what made The Champ the greatest - what truly separated him from everyone else - is that everyone else would tell you pretty much the same thing.” Along those lines, lay people are often quick to highlight negative personality characteristics in famous, mega-successful, leaders: e.g., Steve Jobs was emotionally volatile, Walt Disney was mean, and Henry Ford was ruthless. That may have been the case, but unlike most volatile, mean, and ruthless leaders they had the talent, work ethic, and vision to back it up. Although Ali may not have been a better boxer without his hubris, without his talents he would have looked more like Donald Trump.

This article orginally appeared in the Huffington Post.

Topics: leadership

Drinks with Hogan: How Can Hogan Help My Organization?

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Thu, Jun 02, 2016

Christopher Duffy, Global Solutions Partner, answers this question in today's Drinks with Hogan by discussing Hogan’s proprietary personality assessments, understanding and use of strategic self-awareness, the return on investment, and harnessing personality characteristics to achieve success for the individual and the organization.


Topics: Drinks with Hogan, self awareness, personality assessment

Chats from China: Hogan CEO Visits Shanghai and Beijing

Posted by Krista Pederson on Fri, May 27, 2016

Hogan CEO Tomas ChTomas1-1.pngamorro-Premuzic visited China to speak at several events in Shanghai and Beijing and highlight the shifting focus of the business world to a more Asia-Pacific driven economy. Tomas met with our three Chinese partners, Optimal Consulting, Mobley Group Pacific, and Empower Leaders Consulting to strengthen our relationship and show support for their efforts in the region. 


High Potentials and Leadership Differences across Cultures were the topics of two meetings with local CEOs. Darren Ho from Eli Lily and Leo Ding from Tairan Finance also shared case studies on how their companies use Hogan in the China markets. These successful events provided broader Hogan thought leadership concepts as well as applications of Hogan products to audiences that are new to the overall Hogan experience.

Tomas4-1.pngIn two events organized by Right Management, Tomas spoke on High Potentials in a Fast Changing Economy designed to promote their China Career Aspirations Survey. Hogan matched with each participants’ Hogan data with the survey results, and Right Management shared findings from the survey.

Finally, Tomas enjoyed some Chinese cultural activities, including a tour of the historical Sinan Mansions in Shanghai with Empower Leaders Consulting, dinner in the old hutongs of Beijing with Optimal Consulting, and even trying Haidilao, a local hotpot restaurant.

Hogan is looking forward to continued cooperation with our partners across China and the Asia-Pacific region. Keep your eyes and ears out for more events like this in the near future in Asia and beyond!

For further questions on the Asia Pacific Markets and China, please contact Krista Pederson

Save the Date for Hogan Assessments: The Secrets of Success

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Thu, May 26, 2016


Over the past 25 years, Hogan assessments have emerged globally as the tool of reference for the selection and development of managers and executives. Today, the Hogan inventories are used internationally by companies and coaches to predict the success of their leaders. What are the secrets of success? What lessons can we learn to improve our assessment practices? And what is the future of assessment in the world? To answer these important questions, Hogan distributor MoreHuman Partners has assembled an exceptional panel and you're invited to attend.

The short story of psychometrics
Stéphane Moriou, PhD, CEO and founder of MoreHuman Partners

Lessons of a life dedicated to assessment
Robert Hogan, PhD, President and Founder of Hogan Assessments

Innovations and the future of assessment
Thomas Chamorro-Premuzic, PhD, CEO of Hogan Assessments

A Q&A session and cocktail hour will follow the presentations. There is no cost to participate in the conference but please RSVP in advance with Alla Vizerova at

Register early as space is limited.

Drinks with Hogan: Leadership in a Team Environment

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Tue, May 24, 2016

If leadership is defined as the ability to build and maintain a high performing team, how does a leader effectively engage his or her team? Rebecca Callahan, Manager of Hogan Labs, and Amber Smittick, Corporate Solutions Consultant, discuss the tools and tactics to successful leadership in a team environment in this edition of Drinks with Hogan.


Topics: leadership, teams, Drinks with Hogan

The HPI Turns 3...Million!

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Fri, May 13, 2016

Hogan’s status as a global innovator in personality assessment is nothing new. In 1998, after administering the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) in more traditional formats for years, we were the first test publisher to develop a web-based assessment platform. After we fully integrated the system to score HPI results for personnel selection and employee development in 2001, our online platform became the most popular way to complete the HPI. As a result, we hit a new milestone in 2016, surpassing over 3 million HPI assessments on our core platform. Put another way, we’ve administered the HPI using just this one platform to more people than the entire population of Chicago, Illinois.

Looking Back
As the popularity of the internet and the success of our online business grew, so did HPI usage. In 2001 we used our platform to administer the HPI about 2,000 times. In 2015, that number was over 350,000. It took 9 years to cross the 1 million mark, 5 years to hit 2 million, and less than 3 years to cross 3 million.


Looking Ahead
2016 usage to date (May 1st) suggests that we will continue to surpass marks set in previous years. And at the current rate of growth, we should cross the 4 million mark sometime during the spring or summer of 2018. Furthermore, with the advent of Hogan X and our ever-growing list of clients, partners, and global distributors, we plan to hit that number even sooner.

The Bottom Line
The HPI remains the global standard for assessing personality in normal working adults. Organizations recognize this fact as evidenced by continuous demand for the HPI over the last 15 years despite national and international economic market conditions. More importantly, the demand for our flagship assessment has only increased over that time, and existing data suggest that those trends will continue in the coming years. When global organizations want to hire the right people, develop talented employees, build great leaders, and impact the bottom line, they ask for the HPI.

Topics: HPI

Drinks with Hogan | What is a high potential?

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Thu, Apr 14, 2016

In this edition of Drinks with Hogan, Managing Partner Ryan Ross explains why narrowing the definition of potential, in order to coach and develop people to a very specific thing, is necessary for success. Additionally, Ross discusses the leadership characteristics of a high potential employee.


Topics: Drinks with Hogan, high potential, high potential employees

Hogan to Speak at 31st Annual SIOP Conference

Posted by Hogan Assessments on Tue, Apr 05, 2016


I-O experts from Hogan’s Research and Consulting divisions will showcase advances in personality research during an impressive 21 sessions, symposia, panel discussions, practice forums, and poster sessions at the 31st Annual SIOP Conference in Anaheim, April 14-16.

Thursday, April 14
Digging Deeper into the Darkness: Advances in Dark Personality Research
Research on dark personality in organizations has primarily focused on outcomes. The present set of researchers move beyond basic relationships to explore the questions as to what dark personality is, why people engage in such behaviors, the processes underlying such behaviors, and whether or not they are always negative.
3:30pm, 207A

Know Your Tenant! Personality as a Predictor of Tenant Behavior
In this paper, we examined the relationship between tenant behaviors and The Big Five. Findings indicated a significant relationship between self-reported tenant behaviors and personality constructs. Specifically, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability showed significant relationships with multiple behavioral domains of tenant behavior.
4:30pm, Ballroom A-E

Friday, April 15
Assessments on the go: Designing and implementing mobile-friendly assessments
The influence of mobile devices in the assessment world making it important to understand the impact of these devices on test outcomes. This panel of scholars will discuss both the current state of designing and implementing mobile-friendly assessments as well as explore future implications of development, validation and usability.
9:00am, 303D

High-Potential Programs: Pitfalls, Precautions, and Pearls of Wisdom
Organizations have long recognized the need to identify and develop their top talent, but using assessments instead of politics to do so is a more recent development. This panel brings professionals together to explore best practices, pitfalls, precautions, and guidance for using scientifically proven assessments to drive HIPO programs.
10:30am, 303D

Feedback at Work: Bridging Science and Practice
Workplace feedback, the act of providing employees with information about their job-related potential or performance, is a common psychological intervention in talent management. The proposed panel will discuss the gap between the science and practice of feedback, and provide evidence-based recommendations for improving feedback interventions at work.
1:30pm, 303B

Job Analytic Comparisons of Managerial and Leadership Competencies
Using archival job analytic data, we compared the competencies required for effective managerial and leadership success. Results suggest that there is extensive overlap in the behaviors critical to both. However, leaders must be more strategic while managers handle the tactical operations to execute that strategy.
4:30pm, Ballroom A-E

How Well Does the Dark Triad Capture Dark Side Personality?
To understand relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and other dark side personality dimensions, we analyzed data from Dark Triad measures and the Hogan Development Survey. Our results suggest some overlap between scales across measures, but indicate that Dark Triad measures only assess part of the dark side personality construct space.
4:30pm, Ballroom A-E

Analytics with Assessment Data: Discovering Insights to Shape HR Strategy
Linking pre-employment assessment data to other HR programs can help ensure alignment of strategic objectives within the HR system and also discover new insights. This panel brings together internal and external consultants to discuss their experiences, insights gained, challenges, and advice on linking assessments to other HR practices.
5:00pm, 204C

Saturday, April 16
Assessment in the Digital Age: When Candidates Go Mobile
This session will discuss current issues in using mobile devices to conduct candidate assessments. We will discuss research examining demographic differences and other outcomes. We will also explore relationships between candidates’ social media usage and personality. Finally, we will explore mobile usage trends in emerging markets.
10:30am, 201D

IGNITE Your Career
Twelve early career and seasoned professionals will share their experiences and knowledge of topics important to early career I-O professionals. Each presenter will address a topic related to early career issues. The format will include 12 IGNITE speakers, interactive panel discussion, and a networking opportunity.
10:30am, 204C

Exploring the Psychometric Properties of Personality Derailment Scales
Despite an increasing interest in personality derailers, there remains little consensus over their structure and measurement. We seek to help fill this gap by presenting results from research efforts focused on measurement issues relating to personality derailers. Our focus is on the measurement and psychometric properties of derailment scales.
10:30am, 207D

Ensuring Enterprise Security: Three Diverse Approaches
This session features three distinct approaches to the topic of enterprise security and safety, considering different ways Industrial-Organizational Psychologists can contribute in this area. Topics include prediction of safety from individual and organizational perspectives, as well as developing the cyber security leadership talent pipeline.
1:30pm, 207D

Examining the Replicability of Trait-Trait Interactions in Local Validation Studies
This study examined the incremental predictive validity of trait-trait interaction terms beyond additive regression models using the Big Five personality traits for supervisor-rated job performance. Across 141 criterion validity studies including 14,744 participants, none of the 10 trait-trait interaction terms provided substantial incremental prediction of performance.
2:00pm, Ballroom A-E

Topics: SIOP

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